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Emigration check

Indian passport holders are classified as either ECNR (Emigration Check Not Required) or ECR (Emigration Check Required) ECR passports need a clearance called an Emigration Check from the Government of India's Protector of Emigrants when going to select countries on a work visa. This is to prevent the exploitation of Indian workers (especially the unskilled and less-educated) when going abroad, particularly to Middle Eastern countries. However, ECR passport holders travelling with a tourist visa do not need a clearance; this is known as an Emigration Check Suspension. However, those who wish to apply for a tourist visa on-arrival at their destination (such as Thailand) are faced with a catch-22 situation as they can not clear immigration in an Indian airport without ECNR (or pre-issued tourist visa).[2] ECNR status passports are granted to: Indian nationals born abroad; Indian nationals holding a matriculation certificate or above certification of education; all holders of diplomatic or official passports; all gazetted government servants; all income-tax payers (including agricultural income-tax payers) in their individual capacity; all graduate and professional degree holders (such as doctors, engineers, chartered accountants, scientists, lawyers, etc.); spouses and dependent children of category of certain holders of ECNR passports; seamen in possession of a CDC; Sea Cadets and Deck Cadets who have: passed their final examination on a three-year B.Sc. Nautical Sciences Course at T.S. Chanakya, Mumbai; and undergone three months' pre-sea training at any of the government-approved training institutes such as T.S. Chanakya, T.S. Rehman, T.S. Jawahar, MTI (SCI), or NIPM, Chennai, after production of identity cards issued by the Shipping Master at Mumbai, Kolkata, or Chennai; persons holding a Permanent Immigration Visa, such as visas issued by the UK, USA, or Australia; persons possessing a two years' diploma from any institute recognized by the National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) or the State Council of Vocational Training (SCVT), or persons holding a three years’ diploma or equivalent degree from an institution such as a polytechnic recognized by the central or a state government; nurses possessing qualifications recognized under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947; all persons above the age of 50 years; all persons who have been staying abroad for more than three years (whether in one continuous period or in aggregate), as well as their spouses; all children up to the age of 18 years of age. In accordance with a ruling by the Ministry of External Affairs, passports issued from 2007 onwards do not have the ECNR stamp affixed; instead, a blank page 2 of the passport is deemed to have been ECNR endorsed. As a result, only ECR stamps are now affixed to Indian passports.For passports issued before January 2007, no notation in the passport means ECR. For passports issued in or after January 2007, no notation in the passport means ECNR. If Emigration Check is Required, there will be an endorsement in the passport regarding ECR.